From the CORGIS Dataset Project
By Ryan WhitcombEarthquake records from around the world collected from the United States Geological Survey. Important details about the earthquake such as distance, gap, magnitude, depth and significance are included to properly describe the earthquake. Additionally, data about exact geological coordinates and a relative description of the earthquake's location is included. The earthquakes collected are from the past month.
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/
Download all of the following files.
Key  List of...  Comment  Example Value 

day  Integer number 
27 

depth  Real number 
Depth of the event in kilometers.  15.12 
distance  Real number 
The rough distance that this earthquake occurred away from the reporting station, measured in degrees between. 1 degree is approximately 111.2 kilometers. In general, the smaller this number, the more reliable is the calculated depth of the earthquake. In general, this number is between 0.47.1.  0.1034 
gap  Real number 
In general, the smaller this number, the more reliable is the calculated horizontal position of the earthquake. Specifically, this means the largest azimuthal gap between azimuthally adjacent stations (in degrees). Earthquake locations in which the azimuthal gap exceeds 180 degrees typically have large location and depth uncertainties. Ranges from 0 to 180.  122.0 
hour  Integer number 
0 

id  String 
A unique name for this earthquake.  "nc72666881" 
latitude  Real number 
Decimal degrees latitude (up and down on the globe). Negative values for southern latitudes. Ranges from 90 to 90.  37.6723333 
location.full  String 
"13km E of Livermore, California" 

longitude  Real number 
Decimal degrees longitude (east and west on the globe). Negative values for western latitudes. Ranges from 180 to 180.  121.619 
magnitude  Real number 
Earthquake magnitude is a measure of the size of an earthquake at its source. It is a logarithmic measure. At the same distance from the earthquake, the amplitude of the seismic waves from which the magnitude is determined are approximately 10 times as large during a magnitude 5 earthquake as during a magnitude 4 earthquake. The total amount of energy released by the earthquake usually goes up by a larger factor; for many commonly used magnitude types, the total energy of an average earthquake goes up by a factor of approximately 32 for each unit increase in magnitude. Typically ranges from 1 (very tiny) to 10 (incredibly powerful).  1.43 
minute  Integer number 
19 

month  Integer number 
7 

name  String 
A best guess for the name of the state (or country, in some cases) that this earthquake was reported in.  "California" 
second  Integer number 
43 

significance  Integer number 
A number describing how significant the event is. Larger numbers indicate a more significant event. This value is determined on a number of factors, including magnitude, maximum MMI, felt reports, and estimated impact. Ranges from 0 to 1000.  31 
time.full  String 
"20160727 00:19:43" 

year  Integer number 
2016 